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Antecedentes


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Durante el año 2009 se desarrolló el primer vehículo autobalanceado en Chile, diseñado y construido por el estudiante Leonardo Moreno [2]. Para ello se realizó un análisis y modelación de las características dinámicas del sistema, con el objetivo de obtener la información necesaria para generar una estrategia de control que permitiera el funcionamiento exitoso del vehículo. Posteriormente se abordaron las etapas de diseño e implementación de las distintas partes que componen el vehículo, como la electrónica de potencia, electrónica digital y aspectos mecánicos, entre otros.

El prototipo logró ser funcional en el sentido de que permitía a una persona transportarse de un lugar a otro, evitando obstáculos, con un nivel básico de maniobrabilidad. Además, el proyecto se realizó con costos razonables para un vehículo de estas características, lo que mostró que es factible realizar este tipo de diseños en Chile con resultados exitosos. Sin embargo, la curva de aprendizaje para la conducción del vehículo no fue la esperada, ya que se buscaba obtener resultados similares al Segway [1], que requiere de unos 5 minutos de práctica para manejarlo con comodidad. En este caso, eran necesarios alrededor de 30 minutos de práctica para poder manejarlo de forma segura y controlada, ya que una parte no menor del equilibrio dependía de la habilidad del usuario.

Se atribuyó gran parte de los problemas asociados al equilibrio del sistema a la Unidad de Medición Inercial (IMU), en particular, al giróscopo, el cual requería una constante corrección que no siempre funcionaba adecuadamente generando, en algunos casos, respuestas vigorosas que desestabilizaban al usuario. En consecuencia, se propuso el reemplazo de la unidad IMU por otra de mejor tecnología.

Respecto del control implementado, a pesar de tener un fundamento teórico desarrollado, su funcionamiento se basa más en la experimentación y calibración, por medio de ajustes de parámetros y curvas de comportamiento según las pruebas realizadas.

En conclusión, se construyó un vehículo funcional, con gran potencial pero aún con varios aspectos mejorables. El presente trabajo aborda dichos aspectos, continuando con el desarrollo del mismo vehículo, con el fin de permitir que pueda ser usado de forma más sencilla, segura y confiable.

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