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Control de Velocidad de Motores C.C. « SmartDreams
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Control de Velocidad de Motores C.C.

Como se señaló anteriormente, existe una fuerte dependencia entre la velocidad del motor de corriente continua y el voltaje aplicado en sus terminales, sobre todo para el caso de imanes permanentes. Es por esto que, para controlar este tipo de motores, se busca construir fuentes de tensión variables continuamente.

La solución más sencilla es el uso de reóstatos para controlar el voltaje. Sin embargo, este componente limita fuertemente la corriente, además de disipar potencia innecesariamente, con la consiguiente alteración de las características de torque de la máquina.

Alternativamente, se pueden usar convertidores electrónicos para conseguir un control mucho más eficiente y versátil. Típicamente se utilizan circuitos reductores de voltaje o step-down para regular la velocidad de este tipo de motores, como el mostrado en la Figura 2.3, cuyo control de voltaje se realiza por medio de modulación de ancho de pulso (PWM) de la señal de encendido del transistor T1, el cual opera como interruptor, permitiendo el paso de corriente y cortándolo abruptamente a alta frecuencia, como se describe en Rashid 2001 [4].

Figura 2.3: Circuito reductor de voltaje aplicado al control de velocidad de un motor C.C.

Dada la naturaleza inductiva de los enrollados del motor, es necesario incorporar un diodo en paralelo con éste para permitir la circulación de corriente durante el tiempo en que el transistor no conduce, así se evitan sobretensiones potencialmente peligrosas. Finalmente, el condensador es capaz de proveer altas corrientes por cortos períodos de tiempo para el arranque y además estabiliza el voltaje Ve suprimiendo transientes.

La modulación de ancho de pulso consiste en el control del tiempo en que el transistor T1 conduce respecto al tiempo durante el cual está apagado para una frecuencia de conmutación fija. Se define el ciclo de trabajo como:

donde ton es el tiempo en que el transistor conduce y toff es el tiempo en que no conduce. T es el período de conmutación.

Luego, el voltaje medio en el motor (Vs) está dado por:

El control del ciclo de trabajo se puede realizar por medio de circuitos analógicos o digitales, permitiendo además la implementación de lazos de control para conseguir, por ejemplo, regular la corriente para obtener un torque deseado sin importar la velocidad.

3 Comentario a “Control de Velocidad de Motores C.C.”

  • me puedes dicir las caractiristicas de cada componente ?

  • Características? de qué componentes? este apartado es meramente conceptual, para construir un circuito funcional se requiere conocer las características del motor y seleccionar en función de eso los componentes adecuados.

  • Las características del motor son 12 volts, 120 watts. ¿Cuales serían los componentes adecuados?

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