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Motor de Corriente Continua « SmartDreams
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Motor de Corriente Continua

El motor de corriente continua (C.C.) es la máquina eléctrica más antigua empleada en aplicaciones de potencia y tracción. Su sencillo principio de funcionamiento y gran versatilidad han permitido que siga vigente hasta nuestros días, a pesar de ser constructivamente más complejo que las máquinas de corriente alterna más modernas. Su velocidad fácilmente controlable, posibilidad de girar en ambos sentidos y capacidad de altos torques de partida, lo hacen ideal para aplicaciones de tracción.

El funcionamiento del motor de C.C. se basa en la fuerza generada por la interacción de un campo magnético inmóvil y uno generado por una bobina móvil, montada sobre un eje de rotación. La bobina móvil es alimentada a través de un sistema de escobillas y delgas para invertir la dirección de la corriente y, por consiguiente, el sentido del campo magnético generado, logrando que el torque resultante sea siempre favorable al sentido de giro (Figura 2.1a) como se menciona en Vargas 2006 [3]. En la Figura 2.1b se muestra la bobina dentro de un campo magnético fijo de dirección horizontal.

Figura 2.1: (a) Bobina elemental del motor de C.C. dispuesta sobre un eje de giro y alimentada a través de las escobillas. (b) Bobina montada en un rotor dentro de un campo magnético fijo cuya dirección es perpendicular al eje de giro.

El campo magnético de dirección fija generado por el estator puede ser producido por imanes permanentes, como en la Figura 2.1, o bien por otro enrollado.

Figura 2.2: Circuito equivalente de un motor C.C.

El circuito equivalente del motor C.C., mostrado en la Figura 2.2, se divide en dos partes: El circuito de excitación (izquierda) que genera el campo magnético inmóvil al que se expone el rotor; y el circuito motriz (derecha) en el que se representa al rotor (o armadura) como una fuente de tensión Ea.

La interacción entre ambos circuitos queda descrita por las siguientes ecuaciones:

donde Ea es el voltaje de armadura, G es un parámetro de la máquina llamado inductancia rotacional, ωr es la velocidad de giro del rotor y T es el torque generado. Finalmente Ic e Ia son las corrientes de excitación y de armadura, respectivamente.

Al ser Ra relativamente pequeña, se puede ver que la velocidad de giro depende fuertemente del voltaje de armadura Ea y de la corriente de excitación Ic. Sin embrago, para este trabajo se utilizan motores de imanes permanentes, por lo que el término Ic se considera constante.

El torque generado es directamente proporcional a la corriente de armadura, mientras que la presencia de Ra imposibilita un control directo y preciso de velocidad a través del voltaje aplicado a la armadura a pesar de su fuerte dependencia.

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